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SURF Faculty Projects 2017 (archived)

This page contains examples of faculty research during Summer SURF 2017.

Ahmed Awad, Chemistry

Superbugs are strains of bacteria that are resistant to all 26 antibiotics available in the U.S. The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention estimates that in the U.S. at least 23,000 die every year from multidrug-resistant infections. The review on antimicrobial resistance estimates that globally 700,000 people die each year from infections that are drug-resistant. As microbes develop new mechanisms to resist the effects of drugs, scientists work to develop biologically active molecules with low toxicity that can lead to new antimicrobial therapies. Nucleoside analogues, such as puromycin, have shown promising results as antimicrobial agents, and they also appear to be components of potential antiviral and anticancer drugs. In this proposed project, students will investigate the synthetic routes towards the production of novel nucleoside analogues modified by incorporation of polyethylene glycol into the sugar ring. The proposed polyethylene glycol modifications are unique as they are a) hydrophilic; thus they might have better or no influence on the solubility of respective nucleoside drugs, b) uncharged in aqueous solution; so they are
unlikely to react with cellular proteins; thus they are expected to be less or non-toxic, c) long in length that they may enhance the inhibitory effect of such analogues by wrapping around the target molecules. It has been reported that polyethylene glycol (a gelatinous compound used to thicken food), are bonded to an interferon molecule (a type of protein produced by the body’s cells in response to viral hepatitis and other infections to stimulate the body’s immune system to fight these viral infections and affect the ability of viruses to divide in liver cells). The synthetic molecules would be evaluated as antimicrobials. In addition, these analogues would be tested as inhibitor for NDM-1 (an enzyme some of the most devastating bacteria produced to get their antibiotic resistance). Based on the number of participating SURFers (2 to 4), students will work in either one or two research groups on the development of effective and convenient methods to synthesize the nucleoside analogues. Based on the progress of the synthesis, the biological activity of these molecules would be tested in the contest of these proposal or in future works. The faculty member will introduce the synthetic method to students, and will propose alternative solutions for possible problems. Students will then perform literature survey, collect reported protocols, and with the guidance’s of the faculty research mentor will develop their synthetic schemes. Students proposals will be discussed with the research mentor before an efficient synthetic route will be recommended. After intensive training provided by the faculty, students and the faculty will work on their synthetic protocols, purify their products by column chromatography and HPLC, characterize their new compounds using NMR, Mass Spec and X-ray techniques, perform the antimicrobial tests, and analyze their data for the final conclusion. Students will expect to be excited to complete their work and submit it for presentation or/and publication. They should commit to the eight-week faculty-mentored student research collaborative during the summer 2017 and also excited to work during the fall semester 2017 to complete the project. The faculty will be present to mentor and train students, and will make himself available at any time to provide them with guidance and advice. In addition, there will be about one-hour daily group meetings to discuss the background of the research project and the progress of the work for each group. Students will be recognized and acknowledged for their efforts. Those who produced outstanding research will be able to present their work at scientific conferences and meetings and will be encouraged to submit their work for publication. In addition, outstanding students will be nominated for research awards and scholarships.

Ahmed Awad, Assistant Professor of Chemistry, CSU Channel Islands Education: Postdoctoral Research Associate, UC Santa Barbara, 2006-2007 Postdoctoral Research Associate, Iowa State University, 2004-2006 Ph.D., 2004, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany, Bioorganic Chemistry B.Sc., 1991, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, Chemistry Selected Publications: * Undergraduate students’ names are marked with an asterisk 1. Robert Van Ostrand*, Casey Jacobsen*, Alicia Delahunty*, Carley Stringer*, Ryan Noorbehesht*, Haidi Ahmed*, and Ahmed M. Awad, Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids, 36,181-197 (2017) 2. Theodore V. Peterson*, Tobin U. B. Streamland*, and Ahmed M. Awad, Molecules, 19, 2434-2444 (2014). 3. Eric R. Samuels*, Joshua McNary*, Maribel Aguilar*, and Ahmed M. Awad, Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids, 32, 109-123 (2013) 4. Ahmed M. Awad, Michael J. Collazo*, Kathrinna Carpio*, Christina Flores*, and Thomas C.Bruice, Tetrahedron Letters, 53, 3792-3794 (2012).

Matthew Campbell, Psychology

Episodic memory is the memory of the events in one’s life, including what happened when and where. This is also termed autobiographical memory. While humans have a rich experience of the times, places, and events of our lives, there has been disagreement over whether nonhumans also possess this kind of memory. Nonhumans can certainly learn and remember, think of the bell signifying food in the famous example of Pavlov’s dog. However, there is less evidence for whether nonhumans attach such memories to times and places, as they would if the memories were autobiographical. Recently, researchers showed that hummingbirds could solve a foraging task in which the cues changed with different contexts. Thus, hummingbirds linked memories of what happened with where and the context, showing evidence for episodic properties. To build on this study, we want to add a “when” component by varying the context over the course of a day. A foraging device will be placed outside for an hour at three different times of day, morning, noon, and evening. The device will have four choices with different shape, location, and color cues. One choice will be baited with sugar water, and the choice will change based on the time of day. Therefore, the correct choice in the morning will not be correct at midday or early evening. We will record approaches by hummingbirds and the first location visited as a measure of performance. If hummingbirds attach “when” to their memories, they should switch the location of their first approach based on the time of day. If hummingbirds do not consistently approach the correct choice first at the different times of day, then they can learn some aspects of context but lack all of the components of human episodic memory. By studying a wild bird, we can learn about the evolution of episodic memory and whether it contributes to real-life foraging decisions by wild animals.

Matthew Campbell– As an undergraduate I attended Emory University (Atlanta) where I majored in Neuroscience and Behavioral Biology. My first research experience was learning how to do observational methods to study chimpanzee social behavior, methods I still employ today. My senior project was on cooperation in capuchin monkeys. In graduate school in Psychology at the University of Wisconsin – Madison I studied captive cotton-top tamarins, a small monkey from Colombia. Specifically, I looked at predator recognition and tried to train the monkeys to recognize a natural predator. My goal was to develop methods that reintroduction programs could use to reduce mortality. Ultimately, this was more difficult than expected. I returned to Emory for my postdoctoral fellowship where I studied empathy in chimpanzees. I am continuing with this topic at CSUCI by studying the chimpanzees at the Los Angeles Zoo. The project for a Summer SURFer would be to study autobiographical memory in local hummingbirds.

Geoff Dilly, Biology

I am a marine ecophysiologist who seeks to understand the relationships between organisms and the dynamic environments they live in. I study rocky intertidal zones which are in a constant state of flux. Animals (and algae) that cannot move must tolerate a dynamic suite of abiotic conditions on a daily basis – changes in temperature, wave action, pH, hypoxia, and most dramatically, emersion (exposure to air). The duration of emersion also changes daily depending on the tides; additionally, air temperatures shift with diurnal cycles, seasonal differences, and weather conditions. Thus far, my lab has focused on the West Coast mussel, Mytilus californianus (M.c.), a key indicator species of intertidal community health, which must tolerate rapid shifts between a wide variety of submerged and emerged conditional regimes. Work in my lab currently focuses on the effects of emersion stress on mussels raised at a variety of water conditions using a custom-designed respirometry system. This summer I hope to expand these methods to study an new organism, the macroalgae Silvetia compressa. Mussels are not a keystone rocky intertidal species; this title is better suited for rockweed (Silvetia compressa), a small intertidal macroalgae. Silvetia are known as refugia during emersion periods, acting like an umbrella shielding other more sensitive species from desiccation and heat stress that often accompany periods of emersion. My summer research project would involve working with NPS research scientist Steve Whitaker (an expert on Silvetia) to properly design and carry out physiological experiments in the lab focusing on desiccation and gene response. We aim to build a transcriptome for the algae and investigate genes involved with emersion stress and desiccation. This will help inform environmental policy and broaden our knowledge of the dynamic stresses encountered daily in the rocky intertidal zone. I envision several subprojects which undergraduates can work on separately and as a team during this summer research program. There will be system design and build components, experimental design and setup, literature review, molecular biology, respirometry and physiology, and transcriptome analysis. Therefore I am looking for three students that can bring different skill sets centered around system design, physiology, and bioinformatics that can work effectively together as a team on a challenging and rewarding project that I intend to bring to presentation and eventually publication within a year.

Geoff Dilly– I hold a PhD in Physiology and have studied a diverse array of habitats – including intertidal zones, Antarctica, and hydrothermal vents. Since I arrived at Channel Islands in Fall 2014, I have mentored more than 20 undergraduate students on projects ranging from field ecology and physiology to system building and bioinformatics. Since joining the Biology faculty I have published two papers, presented my research at 4 conferences, and mentored more than 10 student posters and presentations at local, regional, and national conferences. In addition, I was the faculty mentor for the first Channel Islands NSF-funded I-Corps team to compete in a CSU-wide innovation competition this past January. We have been invited to demo this product at a large science innovation fair in LA this Spring. The product of this team, an environmental condition chamber, will be central to this summer research project – building further on the great work students in my lab have already accomplished.

Julianne Gavino, Art & Margarita Lopez Lopez, Spanish

The Con Safos Digital Project is an English-Spanish online multimedia exhibition featuring material from Broome Library’s Southern California Chicano Cultural Collections. The project significantly expands upon the Fall 2016 exhibition “Con Safos Magazine — Reflections of Life in the Barrio” (curated by CI Art faculty member Denise Lugo) about the Chicano Movement in Los Angeles during the 1960s and 1970s. Growing on the success of that exhibit and the existing online archival material (http://repository.library.csuci.edu/handle/10139/2521), this project will generate new multidisciplinary context and understanding via artist interviews and CI student research. This project well serves the CI campus by illustrating its rich institutional repository in addition to the valuable work of faculty and students. It is integrative and multidisciplinary as it documents an historical awakening of Chicano identity and community engagement through groundbreaking cultural activism. As one thread of CI’s partnership with Pacific Standard Time LA/LA, the Getty-led collaboration exploring Latin American and Latino art in dialogue with Los Angeles, this project has immense potential to reach regional, national, and international academic and public audiences across English and Spanish speaking communities. Background Con Safos Inc. (also known as Con Safos Magazine) was a leading Chicano literary journal that emerged in the late 1960’s to the 1970’s in the East Los Angeles Barrio. Con Safos Magazine offered a Chicano first voice to address and document “El Movimiento” or the Chicano Movement. This exhibition chronicles the social and cultural activism of Mexican Americans through visual and literary selections from the publication. The material highlighted includes oral testimonies, personal poems and satirical musings, painting, photography, photo collages, comics, documentaries, and other
cultural expressions [adapted from Denise Lugo’s curatorial statement.] Interviews The project incorporates bilingual transcriptions of the following interviews with Con Safos co-founders: photographer Oscar Castillo, artist Sergio Hernandez and Diane Velarde-Hernandez. These include the following: ● Archival Materials: 1990s interviews from the Southern California Chicano Cultural Collections conducted by Denise Lugo ● New Research: Spring 2017 interviews conducted by Margarita López López in follow-up to the Fall 2016 exhibition and artist dialogue held on the CI Campus CI Student Research for Digital Project / Online Exhibition A multimedia online exhibition will be created through Omeka (CI Keys), creating a new “Con Safos” landing place embedded within the Broome Library Institutional Repository portal. The featured materials will include a curatorial statement, image reproductions, exhibition text/labels, audio/video clips, transcriptions of artist interviews, literary examples, and installation photos of the Broome Library exhibition. Through experiential, “high-impact” learning projects, selected CI Summer SURFer student fellows work directly with Dr. Margarita López López on archival sociolinguist, historical and cultural research; bilingual translation of recorded artist interviews; and exhibition text/labels. Additional CI Summer SURFer student fellows working with Julianne Gavino engage in hands-on production of the online exhibition –this includes archival research, developing exhibition content, post-production of audio/video recordings and web design using the Omeka content management system for online digital collections. Overall, an integration of archival with new research emphasizes how historical reflection connects to social praxis—a vital component of student engagement and expression. The online exhibition will serve CI students and faculty across several disciplines (such as Art, Art History, History, Chicana/o Studies, Spanish, Communications, Anthropology, and Sociology.)

Julianne Gavino–Current research in 20th century and 21st century American multicultural art, social movement/activist art, community-based art practices, public art, global contemporary art, and museums and exhibitions. Over eight years experience in art history teaching, research, curatorial work and digital archival projects. Currently co-organizing two Fall 2017 bilingual exhibitions about The Latino Museum of History, Art and Culture to be held in conjunction with the Getty-led initiative, Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA. Past projects involve curating exhibitions and developing archival collections for local and international cultural and educational institutions. Also contributed to multiple student-centered campus-wide CI events (such as Día de los Muertos, Celebrating La Mujer, Student Art Show, and SAGE Student Research Conference.) Written articles and presented conference papers on contemporary art/artists and interdisciplinary teaching.

Margarita Lopez Lopez–Current research in Mexican Culture/Literature/History, Chicanx and U.S. Latinx Culture/Literature/History, Spanish Dialectology/Sociolinguistics, Spanish/ English Translation and Interpretation. Over twelve years experience as official Spanish-English translator/interpreter for Los Angeles Unified School District. Translator for international/study abroad programs at CSUN and CSUDH. Active with student clubs (CIDreamers advisor, Sigma Delta Pi Spanish Honor Society co-founder and advisor) and student research for student Spanish publications (El Canto de los Delfines Spanish Creative Journal, first Spanish articles in the CI View and The Nautical), conference paper presentations, (such as the American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese, International Symposium of Hispanic Literature-CSUDH), and service-learning/community (Continuums of Service National Conf., Radio Indígena of Oxnard). Recipient of the Best Practices Recognition in Service Learning.

Georgina Guzman, English

Middle-Class Feelings: Working-Class and Minority Students Navigating the In-Between Worlds, Affects, and Politics of the University “Thirty years later I write this book as a middle-class American man. Assimilated…I write this book as a history of my schooling. To admit the change in my life I must speak of years as a student, of losses, of gains…” “I was sad for the Mexicans. Depressed by their vulnerability. Angry at myself. The adventure of the summer seemed suddenly ludicrous. I would not shorten the distance I felt from los pobres with a few weeks of physical labor. I would not become like them. They were different from me.” –Richard Rodriguez, Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez Written in 1982, Richard Rodriguez’s autobiography Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez became the quintessential Mexican-American story of assimilation through education. Hunger of Memory is significant because it best illustrates the affective process by which many Latino students become professionalized in the university—how their pursuit of middle-class social mobility often goes hand in hand with a shameful disavowal of their working-class, racialized identity and an adoption of what I term an “affective anemia” towards Latina/o immigrant laborers. In fact, Rodriguez’s university student persona and his cold distance from “los pobres” (the Mexican day laborers he works with one summer while attending Stanford University) provide a textbook narrativization of “affective anemia”— a hegemonic devalorization of immigrant Latina subjects and their labor in the U.S. that results in apathy and a lack of basic human empathy and mutual human recognition for the underprivileged. This hegemonic disaffection has unfortunately oftentimes become the modus operandi of the ivory tower, especially since, as Christopher Newfield’s Ivy and Industry: Business and the Making of the American University, 1880-1980 (2003) suggests, over the last century, the neoliberal university has increasingly lost its humanist and emancipatory ideals to become an engine for uniformity, productivity, and “a disciplined and selective sympathy” (108). Through our interdisciplinary research collaboration, students will investigate these socioeconomic dynamics of working-class minority students’ feelings of shame, assimilation, and disidentification with immigrants as a way to access social mobility; in this way, students will gain a better understanding of how emotionally and politically-fraught this nexus of race, class, labor, and education is in the U.S. We will ask: How do everyday feelings and politics structure social relations in the U.S.? How do society and the university foster ideas of cultural deficits and promote a disavowal of one’s working-class and/or immigrant background? How may students learn to devalorize immigrant Latina/o workers, such as farmworkers, domestics, and janitors and how can they unlearn these hegemonic views? Indeed, the university has traditionally been seen as an engine for social mobility, but how can we ensure that this social mobility is a collective rather than an individualistic enterprise? To orient themselves in regards to these research questions, students will read and discuss segments of Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez, Christopher Newfield’s Unmaking the Public University: The Forty-Year Assault on the Middle Class (2008), Tara Yosso’s “Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth,” and affect studies scholarship such as Sara Ahmed’s The Cultural Politics of Emotion (2004) and José Esteban Muñoz’s “Feeling Brown: Ethnicity and Affect” (2000). From there, students will develop their individualized research plans based on their area of interest. Students may pursue directed research in a variety of fields: literary/cultural studies, Sociology, Education, Psychology, Political Science, Philosophy, Media Studies, and Economics. Georgina Guzman is an Assistant Professor in English with a variety of interdisciplinary interests, such as multi-ethnic literature, affect theory, working-class and feminist studies, and the history of the university. She is the co-editor of Making a Killing: Femicide, Free Trade, and La Frontera (University of Texas Press, 2010). She has also published several articles including an essay entitled, “The Twenty-first Century Politics of  atinidad: Decolonizing Consciousness, Transnational Solidarity, and Global Activism in Demetria Martínez’s Mother Tongue” in (Re)mapping the Latina/o Literary Landscape: New Works and New Directions (Palgrave,2016). At CI, Dr. Guzman teaches courses in Multicultural Literature, Chicana/o Literature with a Service-Learning component, and Literary Genres in Translation.

Jason Isaacs, Computer Science

During the Spring 2017 semester CSUCI participated in the NASA Swarmathon Competition. CI was among 20 minority serving institutions to participate in this national robotics competition. As part of the competition the students also took part in a special topics course on swarm robotics in which they learned to design and test algorithms related to coordinating groups of robots to automatically (no human driver) search for and collect resources in an unknown environment. NASA is interested in this area of research in relation to its Mars mission where they want to send groups of Mars Rovers to gather ice which can be used to create fuel to power a spaceship for a return trip to Earth. As part of the competition CI received three wheeled mobile robots (mini Mars Rovers) that are equipped with several sensors and computing equipment. The intention of this research project is to continue and extend the experience for some of the students who worked on the Swarmathon competition to formalize their work into a proper research project. In the fast-paced environment of a robotics competition sometimes just getting something to work takes precedence over perhaps doing something in a novel or optimal way that may take longer to develop. By participating in this summer research project students will be able to take the time to explore the area of swarm robotics more deeply and try out ideas that were just not possible in the context of the competition. Since the NASA competition is a multi-year competition that is held each April we will have access to the robots for research projects this summer. Additionally, I am applying to host 1-2 students from other universities who have taken part in the competition for REU positions that are sponsored through NASA. If CI students are selected for this project they will have the opportunity to interact with students from other universities on similar projects. The role students will play on the project will be to work as a team to develop, implement, and test novel algorithms for swarm (group) robotic search and collection. The algorithms will be coded in C++ programming language using ROS (Robotic Operating System) and will be tested on both simulation and on real robots.

Jason T. Isaacs is an assistant professor of computer science at California State University, Channel Islands. His research interests include multiagent control systems, UAV path planning, localization and mapping, and sensor networks. His teaching interests include control systems, embedded systems, and robotics with a specific interest in introducing feedback control and mobile robotics to early undergraduate and high school students to stimulate their interest in these subjects. Professor Isaacs received the Ph.D. degree in electrical and computer engineering from the University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, in 2012 under the supervision of Professor João Hespanha. He received a B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Kentucky in 1999. Upon graduation he spent the next six years working as a motion control development engineer for Lexmark International Incorporated. He spent a summer as a research intern in the Sensor Fusion group at the U.S. Army.

Alona Kryshchenko, Mathematics

Monte Carlo Simulation of Drug Concentrations with Measurement and Process Noise ADVISOR: Dr. Alona Kryshchenko Pharmacokinetic models describe the behavior of a drug in the human body. The model also includes the how the drug is administered and how samples of drug concentration are taken. Typically the purpose of the drug is to achieve a certain therapeutic goal. Unfortunately, random errors are inherent in drug administration and concentration sampling and even in the model itself. The design of a therapeutic drug dosage regimen then becomes a mathematical problem in control of an uncertain system. In this project we will examine several ways the error can be accounted when modeling drug behavior in the human body. Truly individualized therapy with drugs having narrow margins of safety first requires a practical pharmacokinetic/dynamic model of the behavior of a drug. Past experience with a drug is stored in the form of a population model. Next, using the information in such a model and its relationship to the incidence of adverse reactions, a specific, explicit therapeutic goal must be selected by the responsible clinician, based on the patient’s need for the drug and the risk of adverse reactions felt to be justified by each patient’s need, small, moderate, or great. Individualized drug therapy thus begins with the selection of individualized therapeutic goals (low, moderate, or high) for each patient. Using subsequent feedback from the patient’s serum drug levels, and using Bayesian fitting, the model is then linked to each patient as a patient-specific model. Control of the model by the dosage regimen increasingly controls the patient, to better obtain the desired explicit therapeutic goals. This process is essentially similar to that of a flight control or missile guidance system. It is common to model drug concentrations using only measurement noise, i.e. measurement error that is specific to a laboratory where samples were tested. However, there are many more ways where uncertainty can be introduced to the model, i.e. errors in dose amounts, administration times, and what parts of the body are influenced by the drug. These are called process noise. In this project we will use Monte-Carlo simulations to study the differences in the concentrations when different type and amount of noise is introduced. Students will learn foundations of Pharmacokinetics, simple linear stochastic models and some basic control theory. We will examine how to introduce different types of noise and how to use MATLAB to simulate these noise terms This project is appropriate for students that have successfully completed courses in differential and integral calculus and probability. Some knowledge of programming in MATLAB is desired, although not necessary. With the guidance of the faculty advisor, students will be enriched in the mathematical theory behind the numerical simulations, will be given enrichment in MATLAB programming and will co-author a manuscript of their findings. References 1. A Kryshchenko, A Schumitzky, M van Guilder, M Neely, Nonparametric estimation of a mixing distribution for a family of linear stochastic dynamical systems, arXiv preprint arXiv:1509.04350, 2015 2. David S. Bayard and Roger W. Jelliffe, A Bayesian Approach To Tracking Patients Having Changing Pharmacokinetic Parameters., Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2004 3. Jelliffe, R.W., Schumitzky, A. & Van Guilder, Nonpharmacokinetic Clinical Factors Affecting Aminoglycoside Therapeutic Precision February 1992, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 20–29

Dr. Kryshchenko’s interests include the fields of Statistics and Probability (nonparametric maximum likelihood and nonparametric Bayesian estimation methods), Pharmacokinetics (specifically modeling drug concentrations) and Genetics (especially estimating the starting positions of the genes in different organisms). She has authored several research papers in the areas of nonparametric estimation of distributions of parameters of population models, genetics and pharmacokinetics. Dr. Kryshchenko has worked at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles as a research post-doctoral fellow as part of the Laboratory of Applied Pharmacokinetics and Bioinformatics. The primary focus of this group is optimizing drug therapy for populations and individuals. Dr. Kryshchenko is co-investigating methods that allow more objective and personalized dose assignments. She has presented her work on national and international conferences, traveled widely and speaks several foreign languages.

Lindsey O’Connor, Sociology

Researchers have documented widespread discrimination against workers with family caregiving responsibilities (Williams, Blair-Loy, & Berdahl 2013). This discrimination persists despite the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission’s (EEOC) ruling that decision-making based on workers’ caregiving status can violate federal law (EEOC 2007). While formal family responsibilities discrimination (FRD) complaints to the EEOC increased in recent years (Calvert 2010), FRD persists–in part–because much worker mistreatment goes unrecognized or unreported. As such, it is important to identify the factors that lead some workers, but not others, to recognize FRD. This study seeks to answer this question by examining two sets of factors that lead people to identify fictitious workplace scenarios as instances of FRD. Specifically, this study asks: (1) To what extent does the gender, race, and social class of a worker affect whether people label treatment toward the worker as FRD? (2) How does adherence to widespread cultural norms about work and family affect whether people label treatment of a worker as FRD? Students will help me analyze the results of a web-based survey experiment to answer the above questions. The survey experiment is being administered this semester (with the help of student research assistants) using Qualtrics. SURFers will gain experience with experimental methods and Qualtrics survey software, in addition to statistical software (e.g., SPSS or Stata) and basic statistical techniques that they will use to help me analyze the survey data. Students will have the opportunity to develop their own research questions that can be answered using the data generated from the survey experiment. For example, students might explore whether the effects of cultural norms about work and family on labeling treatment as FRD vary by a respondent’s own gender. Students will have the opportunity to develop their own research paper on their specific topic of interest and will be encouraged to pursue academic venues to formally present this research, including the 2018 Pacific Sociological Association meeting in Long Beach, CA. References Calvert, Cynthia T. 2010. “Family responsibilities discrimination: Litigation update 2010.” San Francisco, CA: The Center for WorkLife Law. Retrieved August 4, 2014, from http://www.worklifelaw.org/pubs/FRDupdate.pdf Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2007). “Enforcement guidance: Unlawful disparate treatment of workers with caregiving responsibilities.” Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.eeoc.gov/policy/docs/caregiving.html Williams, Joan C., Mary Blair-Loy, and Jennifer L. Berdahl. 2013. “Cultural Schemas, Social Class, and the Flexibility bias.” Journal of Social Issues 69(2):209-34.

Lindsey Trimble O’Connor joined CSU Channel Islands as an Assistant Professor of Sociology in 2013. Before coming to CI, she worked as a postdoctoral research fellow at the Clayman Institute for Gender Research at Stanford University. She earned her Ph.D. in Sociology from Washington State University in 2012. O’Connor teaches and conducts research on gender, work, and social networks, but is particularly interested in the issues people with caregiving responsibilities confront in the workplace. Most work organizations expect–and reward–workers who are singularly devoted to work, available 24/7, and who never need any time off for family or personal reasons. What does this expectation mean for the majority of workers who have children or who care for elderly family members? O’Connor’s research takes on this question by examining the effects of this expectation on workers, and how organizations can change to accommodate the family responsibilities that most workers have.

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